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Typing

This is not about typing in code with your keyboard but about what kind of language Python is. There are two main ways people talk about how typing is implemented.

Weak vs strong typing

This is basically unhelpful for almost all important languages in use today. See if you can make sense of the Wikipedia article. This post is helpful to understand the weaknesses of making those distinctions: C# is strongly and weakly typed

With this in mind: on a scale from 1 to 10 Python 3 is maybe an 8 on the strongness of typing, as it does little coercion and no casting, but only type conversion by creating new objects (e.g. int('3') is creating a new int object from the information given by the string).

Static vs dynamic

This is easier: Python is dynamically typed. You never explicitly declare a type when you create an object and you don't have to explicitly state which types are expected as parameters in function definitions.

One important concept in Python follows from that: duck typing. This means, that as long as an object contains the data or exhibits the behaviour I care about, I don't actually care about the concrete type.

Examples

Python vs Java

Java variables are like picky club bouncers - this doesn't even compile:

public class JavaVariables {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
    int a = 1;
    String b = "hello";
    a = b;
    }
}

Python names (better not call them variables) are like post-its